IL-1 beta-dependent CFTR expression
Interleukin 1 ( IL-1 beta ) stimulates expression of the Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator ( CFTR ) via Nuclear factors of kappa light polypeptide in B-cells ( NF-kB ). The exact signaling leading to CFTR expression is unknown. The basic pathway of NF-kB activation by IL-1 beta is mediated by TNF receptor-associated factor 6 ( TRAF6 ). IL-1 binds to Interleukin 1 receptor type I ( IL-1RI ) and activates transcription factors via cytoplasmic mediators such as myeloid differentiation primary response gene ( MyD88 ), IL-1 receptor-associated kinase ( IRAK ) and TRAF6 , . These intracellular processes result in recruitment and activation of I kappa B kinases complex ( IKK ). IKK phosphorylates NF-KB inhibitor ( I-KB ) and thereby marks it for degradation, consequently leading to increase in DNA-binding activity of the NF-kB  that directly activates transcription of CFTR , .