Pathway Map Details
Transcription_Sin3 and NuRD in transcription regulation
Object list (links open in MetaCore):
Histone H3, N-CoR, Histone deacetylase class I, PPAR-alpha/RXR-alpha, RARalpha, MTA1, RXRA, SAP130, MTA3, NRSF, PPAR-alpha, RAR-beta/RXR-alpha, SAP30, CBP, PCAF, Mi-2 alpha, ARID4A, RARbeta, Mi-2 beta, p66alpha, MTA2, NRB54, MBD2, SDS3, RAR-alpha/RXR-alpha, RAR-alpha/RXR-beta, SAP18, Histone H4, ARID4B, SMRT, MBD3, Sin3B, p300, Sin3A, RAR-alpha/ TR-alpha, TR-alpha, p66beta, PSF
Sin3 and NuRD in transcription regulation
Activation and repression of gene expression correlate with the state of acetylation of the histones. In general, histone acetylation correlates with more open chromatin and active gene expression, whereas deacetylation correlates with closed chromatin and repressed gene expression. NuRD and Sin3 are two major c lass I histone deacetylase-containing complexes. These complexes play important roles in distinct aspects of embryonic and post-embryonic development , .
NuRD and Sin3 both contain Histone deacetylase class I, a complex that consists of Histone deacetylase 1 and 2 ( Hdac1 and Hdac2), Retinoblastoma binding protein 4 and 7 ( Rbbp4 and Rbbp7). In addition, NuRD may contain both GATA zinc finger domain containing 2A and 2B ( p66alpha and p66beta ). Metastasis associated 1, 2 and 3 ( MTA1, MTA2 and MTA3 ) are mutually exclusive within NuRD, as are Methyl-CpG binding domain protein 2 and 3 ( MBD2 or MBD3 ) , .
Sin3 complexes contain Suppressor of defective silencing 3 homolog ( SDS3 ), AT rich interactive domain 4A and 4B ( ARID4A and ARID4B ), Sin3A-associated protein 18kDa, 30kDa and 130kDa ( SAP18, SAP30 and SAP130 ) and either SIN3 homolog A ( Sin3a ) or SIN3 homolog B ( Sin3b ) , .
Sin3 complexes have also been shown to interact with a variety of developmentally important factors that are not directly involved in cell cycle control. For example, Sin3 recruitment is required for repression by RE1-silencing transcription factor ( NRSF ) ,  that silences neuronal gene expression programmes in non-neuronal tissues  and fetal cardiac genes in adult cardiac myocytes , .
It has also been proposed that the unliganded nuclear hormone receptors Thyroid hormone receptor alpha ( TR-alpha ), Retinoic acid receptor alpha and beta ( RAR-alpha and RAR-beta ), Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha ( PPAR-alpha) , ,  and other transcription factors can repress their targets by recruiting co-repressor supercomplexes containing Sin3 and closely related co-repressors nuclear receptor co-repressor 1 and 2 ( N-CoR and SMRT ), Splicing factor proline/glutamine-rich ( PSF ) and Non-POU domain containing octamer-binding ( NRB54 ) , .
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The SIN3 deacetylase complex represses genes encoding mitochondrial proteins: implications for the regulation of energy metabolism. The Journal of biological chemistry 2003 Sep 26;278(39):37840-8
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PSF is a novel corepressor that mediates its effect through Sin3A and the DNA binding domain of nuclear hormone receptors. Molecular and cellular biology 2001 Apr;21(7):2298-311