Pathway Map Details
Object list (links open in MetaCore):
CPGL2, GAD1, DPYD, GAD2, 18.104.22.168, N-Carbomoyl- beta-alanine, 22.214.171.124, Carnosine, 126.96.36.199, BUP1, 188.8.131.52, S-adenosyl-(L)-methionine, 184.108.40.206, beta-Alanine, 2-Oxo-glutaric acid, Anserine, CSAD, L-Histidine, 3-Aminopropanal, ABP1, Uracyl, ALD9A1, 220.127.116.11, Malonic semialdehyde, DPYS, S-Adenosyl- (L)-homocysteine, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199, 188.8.131.52, (L)-Aspartic acid, 184.108.40.206, GABT, 1,3-Diamino propane, 5,6-Dihydrouracil
Beta-Alanine is the only naturally occurring non-essential beta amino acid. It is formed in organism by different metabolic pathways.
One occurs via reductive pyrimidine degradation and begins with the conversion of Uracil to 5,6-Dihydrouracil by Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase ( DPYD ) , . Then Dihydropyrimidinase ( DPYS ) catalyzes the reversible hydrolytic ring opening of dihydrouracil to N-Carbamoyl-beta-alanine , which in turn is hydrolyzed to beta-Alanine by Ureidopropionase, beta ( BUP1 ) , .
Another main pathway of beta-Alanine biosynthesis is degradation of beta-Alanyl-(L)-histidine. Carnosine N-methyltransferase (EC 220.127.116.11 ) converts beta-Alanyl-(L)-histidine to Anserine using S-Adenosyl-L-methionine as methyl donor . Then Anserine is hydrolyzed to beta-Alanine by Carnosine dipeptidase 1 (metallopeptidase M20 family) CPGL2 . Beta-Alanyl-(L)-histidine may also be hydrolyzed by CPGL2 to beta-Alanine and (L)-Histidine , .
(L)-Aspartic acid undergoes decarboxylation to beta-Alanine by Glutamate decarboxylase 1 (brain, 67kDa) ( GAD1 ) and Glutamate decarboxylase 2 (pancreatic islets and brain, 65kDa) ( GAD2 )  or by Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase ( CSAD ) .
1, 3-Diaminopropane is involved in the beta-Alanine metabolic pathway via formation of 3-Aminopropanal by Amiloride binding protein 1 (amine oxidase (copper-containing)) ( ABP1 )  followed by Aldehyde dehydrogenase 9 family, member A1 ( ALD9A1 )-catalyzed oxidation to beta- Alanine , .
4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase ( GABT ) catalyzes the conversion of 2-Oxo-glutaric acid and beta-Alanine to L-Glutamic acid and Malonic semialdehyde that takes part in propionate metabolism , .
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